Division of Neurocognitive Disorders Older-Adults Mental Health

Dementia

Dementia, can be defined as deterioration in mental ability which can interfere with daily life main symptoms could be forgetfulness. According to a survey conducted in 2010, worldwide Approx 35.6 million people living with dementia, which might expectedly double every 20 years to 65.7 million in 2030 and 115.4 million in 2050. most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s which is 60 to 80% percent of cases. In dementia two of the following core mental functions could be significantly impaired;

  • Memory
  • Communication and language
  • Attention and calculation
  • Judgement
  • Visual perception

It needs a detailed and carefully medical history, physical examination, laboratory test to diagnose a person is having dementia. Moreover, to identify typical changes in thinking behaviour and day-to-day functioning CT scared and MRI would be required. For treating dementia it’s very important to identify the cause. Mostly in case of progressive dementia no cure or treatment can slow or stop at progression. there are some drug treatments available which can improve or alleviate symptoms of dementia don’t know treatment approach good sound stop dementia, this can only Slow Down.

Age and genes are some of the risk factors but researchers are trying to explore the impact of some other risk factors like a brain health which might help in prevention of dementia. Some researchers are paying more attention on risk reduction and prevention particularly on cardiovascular factors, diet and physical fitness moreover some strategies could be used to protect our brain as we used to protect your heart like regulating blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar smoking in maintaining a healthy weight. According to recent researches healthy eating pattern and balanced diet may also help protect the brain. Healthy diet may include red meat, whole grains, , fruits, fresh vegetables, nuts, olive oil and healthy fats.

Caregivers need to understand that dementia is a chronic illness with progressive deterioration and patients need to be properly cared with special emphasis on their health including hygiene, diet and physical safety of patients.

Find our Newsletter on Dementia

Alzheimers Day

Every 3 Seconds Someone Develops Dementia

Dementia is a syndrome characterized by a decline in memory, language, problem-solving and other cognitive skills that affect a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. it’s not a normal part of aging. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, a group of disorders that impair mental functioning. There is limited literature on prevalence of dementia Pakistan. But according to a rough estimation 0.2 million people are suffering with dementia disease in Pakistan. However, dementia care is the most stressful type of family caregiving, involves huge amount of time, energy, and also on monetarily level for over potentially long periods of time; sometimes it could involve responsibility is that may be unpleasant and uncomfortable and are mentally stressful and physically draining. it is often found caregiving of dementia is linked with emotional, cognitive and behavioral difficulties along with need for supervision and physical support with daily activities.

PILL's contribution towards older-adults mental health in Pakistan

Montessori intervention for individuals with memory impairment: A feasibility study- MIRACLE

PILL has recently completed a feasibility trial with older adults with memory impairment. In this study Montessori intervention was delivered to the participants and their carers. The Montessori method is a system of teaching developed by Maria Montessori based on principles to promote learning and independence in children. The teaching activities are designed to help the child to use his/her senses for learning social, functional, cognitive skills. In this intervention same approach was used for older adults and it was found to be moderately effective in improving certain behavioral outcomes such as eating behaviours, agitation, and mood. Results of our study showed participants positive engagement with this intervention and good retention rate. This suggests that it may be a promising form of support for people with dementia and need to be refined and develop for larger scale.

Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) individuals with neuro cognitive disorders (Dementia): A feasibility study from Pakistan – SAHARA

The aim of the proposed project is to explore the feasibility and acceptability of CST techniques for people with dementia in Pakistan. CST is a psychological therapy which comprises of wide range of activities for people with mild to moderate dementia in order to provide stimulation to enhence cognitive abilities. CST has been recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines UK treatment for dementia. Moreover, evidence that is not only improves cognition through engagement but also improves mood, self-reported wellbeing, quality of life, communication skills and social interactions of participants with dementia and can be delivered relatively easily in both community and residential care in group settings. In this study study we aim to recruit 12 dyads (patients with dementia and carer).

SENSE COG

The SENSE-Cog Asia Feasibility study is single arm open-label feasibility and acceptability study conducted with dyads (PwD and their care partner) across seven sites in three South Asian Countries that will receive a culturally adapted version… read more

World Alzheimer Day Focus Group Discussion

Globally world Alzheimer day is observed on every September 21st to raise awareness about challenges surrounding Dementia and Alzheimer. PILL is part of patient and public voice (PPV) – SENSE-Cog Asia Study. it aims to embed patient and public voice ethos throughout SENSE-Cog Asia, by involving, engaging and informing patients and public. For observing World Alzheimer Day patient and public voice (PPV) – SENSE-Cog Asia study conducted multiple activities in various sites including three sites of PILL. In Rawalpindi a group discussion was conducted to explore understanding about dementia and challenges faced by people with dementia and their caregiver from the prospective of professionals working in the field of dementia.

Potential Participants

Professionals working from different fields of Mental Health were invited to participate in this focus Group discussion. There were 6 members including a General Physician, Psychiatrist.

Summary of Focus Group Discussion

  • Participants highlighted that the dementia is characterized as decline in memory and it is normally caused by cell damage in brain. normally patients caregivers report warning Science as short term memory loss more than expected level in old age, agitation and poor hygiene.
  • Diagnosis of dementia is made in Pakistan true primary, secondary and territory health care centres. In Institute of Psychiatry (IOP) people with dementia are seen in OPD and they generally report memory loss and are presented with comorbidities of depression and other physical disorders.
  • Dementia does have impact on dementia carer’s life and routine but family caregivers don’t receive any support in Pakistan.
  • While dealing with dementia patients caregivers usually have gone through various challenges like dealing with sleep, hygiene and disturbed eating patterns of the patients. They do take them to the parks and try to involve Diamond outdoor setting, calling other relatives for their meetup.
  • There is dire need of spreading awareness about dementia and Alzheimer in Pakistan. When people with dementia reports symptoms of dementia and caregiver and families do feel trouble interpreting these sign and symptoms as dementia disease.

Publications

  • Patient and Public Involvement for Dementia Research in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Developing Capacity and Capability in South Asia
  • A roadmap to develop dementia research capacity and capability in Pakistan: A model for low- and middle-income countries
  • Pathways to care for people with dementia: An international multicentre study
  • Montessori intervention for individuals with dementia: feasibility study of a culturally adapted psychosocial intervention in Pakistan (MIRACLE)
  • Capacity & capability building for applied dementia research in low- & middle-income countries: Two exemplars from South Asia
  • SENSE-Cog Asia: A Feasibility Study of a Hearing Intervention to Improve Outcomes in People With Dementia
  • SENSE-Cog Asia: A Feasibility Study of a Hearing Intervention to Improve Outcomes in People With Dementia

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